Nutritional impact upon health conditions - Cambridge Nutritional Sciences

Nutritional impact upon health conditions

  
  1. Intermittent Fasting in Cardiovascular Disorders—An Overview                                     (Malinowski et al, 2019)                                                                                                                                       The positive effect that an intermittent fasting diet has upon obese individuals has been documented, with the reduction in food consumption, improved glucose metabolism and increased tissue sensitivity to insulin, leading to a decrease in body weight.
    Although the intermittent fasting diet may have demonstrated benefits to human health and wellbeing, it is not without its dangers however, and is therefore, not recommended for certain individuals, including those with hormonal imbalances, eating disorders, underweight individuals, pregnant and breastfeeding women, as well as diabetics.
  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Vegan Diet Versus the American Heart Association–Recommended Diet in Coronary Artery Disease Trial                                    (Shah et al. 2019)                                                                                                                                                    We demonstrated a substantially greater reduction in high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP - a marker of systemic inflammation and clinically elevated in patients with atherosclerosis) for patients on a vegan diet versus the American Heart Association recommended diet in patients with established Coronary Arterial Disease. Data indicates that the increased fiber intake in a healthy, wholefood, non-processed vegan diet, may improve gut microbiota balance and thus improve the inflammatory profile, leading to a reduction in hsCRP.
  3. Role of Zinc in the Development/Progression of Alcoholic Liver Disease                (McClain et al, 2018)                                                                                                                                         There is major zinc dyshomeostasis with ALD. This is mediated, in part, by poor intake and absorption, increased excretion, and altered zinc transporters, especially ZIP 14. Zinc deficiency plays an etiologic role in multiple mechanisms of ALD, ranging from intestinal barrier dysfunction to apoptosis. Zinc supplementation is highly effettive at correcting these ALD mechanisms and preventing/treating experimental ALD.
  4. Efficacy of a Gluten-Free Diet in the Gilles de laTourette Syndrome: A Pilot Study (Rodrigo et al, 2018)                                                                                                                                  A gluten free diet is a potential new line of therapy for patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS), but would semingly require a strict and prolonged adherence. It appears to assist in the reduction of the frequency and intensity of motor and vocal/phonic tics, as well as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms. This can subsequently result in a reduction in the consumption of NSAIDs by children and of antipsychotics by adults, leading to an improved quality of life.
  5. Hyperglycemia drivesintestinal barrier dysfunction and risk for enteric infection (Thaiss et al, 2018)                                                                                                                                                       The researchers found that there is a mechanistical link between hyperglycemia, intestinal barrier function and the systemic inflammatory effects of obesity and diabetes. 
  6. Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Hard Evidence at Last?                          (Perucca , 2017)                                                                                                                                              Evidence concerning the potential anti-seizure efficacy of cannabinoids reached a turning point in the last 12 months, with the completion of three high-quality placebo-controlled adjunctive-therapy trials of a purified CBD product in patients with Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In these studies, CBD was found to be superior to placebo in reducing the frequency of convulsive (tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, and atonic) seizures in patients with Dravet syndrome, and the frequency of drop seizures in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. For the first time, there is now class 1 evidence that adjunctive use of CBD improves seizure control in patients with specific epilepsy syndromes.
  7. Healthful and unhealthful plant-based diets and the risk of coronary heart disease in US adults (Satija et al, 2017)                                                                                                     Higher intake of a plant-based diet index rich in healthier plant foods is associated with substantially lower CHD risk, while a plant-based diet index that emphasizes lesshealthy plant foods is associated with higher CHD risk.  
  8. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation (Rizzo et al, 2016)                                                                                                                                                           Due to ethical, environmental and health reasons, it is becoming an increasingly popular lifestyle choice to remove foods of an animal origin from the diet. However, being a healthy vegetarian isn't just as simple as avoiding meat and fish, but about making healthy whole food, plant based dietary choices.
    Whilst it has been shown that vegetarians statistically have reduced body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and serum cholesterol and glucose levels, with a lower mortality rate due to ischemic heart disease, when compared to non-vegetarians, underestimating the correct supplementation of cobalamin (vitamin B12) can effectively nullify these benefits. In addition, Rizzo et al (2016) state that "it is also necessary that the diet be balanced and nutritionally adequate to reduce the risks of other deficiencies which could indirectly affect the absorption of cobalamin".
  9. Presence and Risk Factors for Glaucoma in Patients with Diabetes  (Song et al, 2016)         The study authors have highlighted the potential role that routine glaucoma assessments in diabetic individuals can have with regards to the avoidace of the loss of vision in these populations. 
  10. Soil and human security in the 21st century (Amundson et al, 2015)                          Human security has and will continue to rely on Earth’s diverse soil resources. Yet we have now exploited the planet’s most productive soils. Soil erosion greatly exceeds rates of production in many agricultural regions. Nitrogen produced by fossil fuel and geological reservoirs of other fertilizers are headed toward possible scarcity, increased cost, and/or geopolitical conflict. Climate change is accelerating the microbial release of greenhouse gases from soil organic matter and will likely play a large role in our near-term climate future. In this Review, we highlight challenges facing Earth’s soil resources in the coming century. The direct and indirect response of soils to past and future human activities will play a major role in human prosperity and survival.
  11. Added sugars drive nutrient and energy deficit in obesity: a new paradigm (DiNicolantonio and Berger, 2015)                                                                                                                    Obesity is a state of nutrient and energy deficit brought about, in part, by the overconsumption of added sugars (specifically high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose). Added sugars provide energy (calories), but in the context of consumption at current intake levels, they hinder the production of energy.
  12. Glycaemic Responses, Appetite Ratings and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses of Most Common Breads Consumed in Spain. A Randomised Control Trial in Healthy Humans (Gonzalez-Anton et al, 2015)                                                             The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulinemic index (InI), appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. 
  13. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis (Halpern et al, 2015)                                              For the treatment and control of endometriosis, hormonal medications are the only options currently available, often without therapeutic success and with numerous side effects. This review allows us to conclude that there is evidence that food and nutrients influence both the pathogenesis and progression of the disease, leading to the possibility of alternative, adjuvant treatments to those suffering from the disease.
  14. Blood glucose concentration and risk of pancreatic cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis (Liao et al, 2015)                                                                   Every 0.56 mmol/L increase in fasting blood glucose is associated with a 14% increase in the rate of pancreatic cancer. As prediabetes can be improved or even reversed through lifestyle changes, early detection of prediabetes coupled with lifestyle changes could represent a viable strategy to curb the increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer.
  15. Coffee Consumption vs. Cancer Risk - A Review of Scientific Data                                  (Wierzejska, 2015)                                                                                                                                                   Data on the potentially beneficial effects of coffee on liver function and liver diseases in general have been gathered over the past couple of decades and since 2007, all published data in this area suggest that the consumption of coffee can protect against liver cancer.
    Meta-analyses of cohort and case-control studies by Larsson and Wolk (2006) and Yu et al. (2016) both reported an inverse association between liver cancer and coffee consumption among individuals with and without a history of liver disease.
  16. Lipid Replacement Therapy: A natural medicine approach to replacing damaged lipids in cellular membranes and organelles and restoring function                            (Nicolson and Ash, 2014)                                                                                                                         Recent clinical trials have shown the benefits of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial function and reducing fatigue in aged subjects and patients with a variety of clinical diagnoses that are characterised by loss of mitochondrial function and include fatigue as a major symptom.
  17. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment                                                                          (Sanchez-Bayo and Goka, 2014)                                                                                                                        Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. 
  18. Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials (He et al, 2013)                  A modest reduction in salt intake for four or more weeks causes significant and, from a population viewpoint, important falls in blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, irrespective of sex and ethnic group. Salt reduction is associated with a small physiological increase in plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and noradrenaline and no significant change in lipid concentrations. These results support a reduction in population salt intake, which will lower population blood pressure and thereby reduce cardiovascular disease. The observed significant association between the reduction in 24 hour urinary sodium and the fall in systolic blood pressure, indicates that larger reductions in salt intake will lead to larger falls in systolic blood pressure.
  19. Glycemic index, glycemic load and cancer risk (Hu et al, 2013)                                             In this large, nationwide population-based case–control study, a high GI was positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer. The GL was associated with the risk of colorectal (mainly rectum) and pancreatic cancers.
  20. Is food addiction a valid and useful concept? (Ziauddeen and Fletcher, 2013)     Animal models tell us that it is possible to produce an addiction-like syndrome, one that leads to obesity, with certain nutrient combinations and particular access regimes.
  21. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk (Harris et al, 2012)                                                                                         Although ovarian cancer is not one of the most common, it is still diagnosed in approximately 7,500 women in the UK every year.
    The researchers identified a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer with the intake of methionine and dietary vitamin B6.
    The researchers observed a greater inverse association for methionine amongst women with a specific MTHFR SNP, indicating that methionine may be more effective in reducing ovarian cancer risk among individuals without reduced MTHFR activity. This highlights the potential role that nutrigenomics may play in guiding effective preventative interventions with regards to lowering the risk and occurrence of ovarian cancer.                                                                                                                 
  22. Relationship Between plasma Glucose Levels and Malignant Uterine cervical neoplasias (Nomelini et al, 2011)                                                                                                                 The researchers demonstrated an association between higher plasma glucose levels and invasive cervical cancer, and thus concluded, that the testing of blood glucose levels should be employed as an additional prognostic parameter in patients with cervical cancer. 
  23. Diet restriction in migraine, based on IgG against foods: A clinical double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial (Alpay et al, 2010)                                                                         This is the first randomised, cross-over study in migraineurs, showing that diet restriction based on IgG antibodies is an effective strategy in reducing the frequency of migraine attacks. 
  24. Cherry Antioxidants: From Farm to Table (Ferretti et al, 2010)                                               The dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds found in vegetable products. Sweet and sour cherries contain several antioxidants and polyphenols that possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and antiinflammation properties. The review describes the effect of environment and other factors (such as production, handling and storage) on the nutritional properties of cherries, with particular attention to polyphenol compounds. Moreover the health benefits of cherries and their polyphenols against human diseases such as heart disease, cancers, diabetes are reviewed. 
  25. Fish oil, but not flaxseed oil, decreases inflammation and prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction (Duda et al, 2009)                                                          Dietary supplementation with v-3 PUFA derived from fish, but not from vegetable sources, increased plasma adiponectin, suppressed inflammation, and prevented cardiac remodelling and dysfunction under pressure overload conditions. 
  26. The Ketogenic Diet: Uses in Epilepsy and Other Neurologic Illnesses                        (Barañano and Hartman, 2008)                                                                                                                    The ketogenic diet traditionally has been used in cases of intractable epilepsy, but it also has become established as a first-line agent in a few specific epilepsy syndromes. 
  27. Effects of Changes in Water Intake on Mood of High and Low Drinkers                         (Benardot, 2007)                                                                                                                                     Inadequate fluid consumption, particularly during bouts of physical activity, that results in dehydration may inhibit the delivery of nutrients to cells and inhibit the removal of metabolic by-products from cells, both of which are factors in early exercise fatigue.
  28. Low Circulating Folate and Vitamin B6 Concentrations Risk Factors for Stroke, Peripheral Vascular Disease, and Coronary Artery Disease (Robinson et al, 1998)   Low concentrations of folate and vitamin B6 are often associated with high homocysteine concentrations. Lower levels of both these vitamins confer an increased risk of vascular disease. This risk may be mediated through homocysteine in the case of folate but not in the case of vitamin B6. Such vitamin levels are commonplace in the population and include many individuals now thought to have vitamin concentrations in a normal range. The abnormalities may be readily reversed by folic acid either alone, or in combination with vitamins B12 and B6. Intervention studies are now required to test the effects of such treatment on the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease.  
  29. Dietary Sugar and Colon Cancer (Slattery et al, 1997)                                                                We believe that our sucrose data corroborate those reported elsewhere and that a diet that increases glycemic response is involved in the etiology of colon cancer. These associations appear to be more related to proximal tumors, possibly because of their effect on hormonal regulation. Although there are many possible explanations for our results, we believe that they lend indirect support to the hypothesis that insulin resistance is associated with colon cancer.